Barton Childs was born in 1916 in Chicago, IL. He graduated from Williams College in Williamstown, MA, in 1938 and received his MD from Johns Hopkins University Medical School in 1942. After completing his military service in 1946, he finished his residency in pediatrics at Johns Hopkins. He became a research fellow at Children’s Hospital Boston in 1948 but returned to Johns Hopkins the following year, and remained there for the rest of his career, retiring in 1981 as a professor emeritus in Pediatrics and Biology. In 1952, he received a Commonwealth Fund fellowship to work at the Galton Laboratory at University College, London for a year. He conducted seminal research in biochemical genetics to understand the genetic nature of many human diseases, including adrenal hyperplasia, propionic acidemia, and schizophrenia. His lab was one of the first to provide molecular evidence that one of the X chromosomes in human female somatic cells becomes inactivated (the Lyon hypothesis), by using a common disease-producing enzyme deficiency, glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase, as a marker. Dr. Childs has written extensively on genetic counseling, genetic screening, and behavioral genetics. Most recently, he has written Genetic Medicine: A Logic of Disease (1999), in which he argues that in the future, all medicine, or medical theory, must be based on the individuality of gene – environment interaction. He has been a Markle scholar and has also received the Mead Johnson Award for Pediatric Research, the William Allan Memorial Award from the American Society of Human Genetics and the Howland Award from the American Pediatric Society. Dr. Childs has served as chairman of the National Research Council committee on Genetic Screening and as president of the American Society of Human Genetics. Dr. Childs died in February, 2010.